Friday, November 29, 2019

4015. INTERN***** The old female not-spayed dogs has a high incidence of developing mammary tumours




1. The 13-year-old Jack Russell
2. The 15-year-old Miniature Schnauzer


1. The 13-year-old Jack Russell

Case of the Jack Russell with a large ulcerated mammary tumour. Surgical excision showed other nodules have had spread along the thigh. The owner was advised on X-rays of the lungs to check for metastasis.
Nov 14, 2019.  Pre-op. Tumour is severely infected and filled with pus.

Blood Test.  The dog has leucocytosis and 
neutrophilia indicating a bacterial infection as shown in the blood test

Total White Cell Count  24.0 x10^9/L  (normal = 6 - 17)
Neutrophils 92.3% (normal = 60 - 70%)
Neutrophils Absolute 22.15 x 10^9/L  (normal = 3-11.5).
Platelet count is normal. 

Nov 15, 2019. Surgery. Mastectomy of left 5th mammary gland.

Get more pre- and operation images from Hsu

Nov 17, 2019.   Video of dog after post-op. It shows the dog has recovered from anaesthesia and is eating.  She went home after 5 days of in-patient treatment.

Dec 5, 2019. Dr Sing phoned owner. Dog is OK but wound has stitch breakdown.
Owner cleans the wound and will WhatsApp image of wound later. Dr Sing advised the owner
to bring the dog in for check-up of the wound. 

1.  Spay your female dog when she is young. Spayed female dogs rarely develop mammary gland tumours.  Spaying your female dog at 1 year of age would have prevented mammary gland tumours as  more than  90% do not develop mammary tumours.

2. Early detection and removal is best for the dog and the owner. A mammary tumour becomes infected and itchy. The dog licks it daily, leading to the soiling of the floor of the residence. By that time, surgery is needed as in the above two cases. 

2. The 15-year-old Miniature Schnauzer

Check blood test results
Operation image

Similar advices as for Jack Russell.


4014. The older hamster develops tumours

Early detection and removal saves lives as some of these tumours do become cancerous.

4013. Fractured, overgrown teeth in a hamster - Image

A hamster cannot eat properly if he has broken or overgrown tooth. He becomes emaciated.

4012. A hamster has a right eyeball prolapse - popping out of the eye socket


Anti-inflammatory, e-collar and rest for 2 days in Toa Payoh Vets. The eyeball has shrunk back to normal size.  The owner is happy.


Thursday, November 28, 2019

4011. Link to google maps - Toa Payoh Vets

4010. Headwear - bucket hats and others

14 Apr 2017.  MYANMAR. Chaung Tha Beach, Thingyan Day. 14 April 2017.

17 Nov 2019.  SINGAPORE. The Esplanade

Crowds of Singapore tourists at The Esplanade.
Covid-19 cases start around Dec 2019. 

4009. INTERN*****The 9-year-old Shiba Inu farted and passed mucoid blood in the stools frequently.

Thursday, Nov 28, 2019

Passing blood in the stools for more than 2 months is the main complaint. How to resolve this problem?

1. Colitis - inflammation of large intestines, allergy to dog food, dog treats, worms, bacteria
2. Neoplasia - tumours in large intestines and colon.
3. Nervous temperament - stress. Cars
4. Foreign bodies in the colon and/or rectum

BLOOD TEST. Liver and kidneys OK? Check blood test report.
STOOL TEST. No worms. Blood present.

Based on the history of response to the feeding of therapeutic diet (Hill's I/D), deworming and antibiotics previously, the dog is given the same treatment.

The diagnosis is likely to be colitis due to irritation from the commercial diet and dog treats. No other food or dog treats will be given when the dog is fed the therapeutic diet for around 3 months. Dental scaling is advised. .

If the dog does not respond to this treatment, more detailed investigation will be done.  .

Dr Sing phoned the owner. No more blood in the stools. Flatulence is less. It is still early to conclude that the dog's colitis is no more. 

Wednesday, November 27, 2019

3319. A young active red-eared slider has a swollen right thigh. What is the problem?

Video of physical examination

A 16-month-old red-eared slider has a swollen right thigh


The red-eared slider makes a good pet as over 80% of the residents live in apartments.
Toa Payoh Township
Gem Residencs condo, Toa Payoh

Red-eared sliders are the only turtle species permitted as pets in Singapore. No other species like the Star Tortoise (search my blog for image).

1.  Physical examination

2.  Laboratory tests - X-ray

3318. Singapore stories: An optician has several eye examination machines.

Nov 27, 2019.

I was introduced to this optician who has more eye examination machines than his peers. Very good confidence in him as the eye visuals are stunning.

Tuesday, November 26, 2019

3317. Final Video: Urethrostomy in an old Shih Tzu

INTERN to create vet educational video

History of case:

Video of dog now able to pee. Get from owner. Frequent urinary catheterisation means coming to Toa Payoh Vets every few days as the dog could not pee again and again after catheterisation. 

SURGERY - Urethrostomy


Dog is very old and hence all owners are very worried about death on the operating table.



The urethra behind the os penis has been cut open. The sutures stitch skin to the mucosa of the urethra.
This surgery of making a hole in the urethra is called urethrostomy

The stitches are removed 14 days later. The dog will pee out from this opening

Monday, November 25, 2019

3328. The young female cat has multiple circular wounds. - what not to do in video production

Nov 26, 2019. The following is the guideline to produce a script. The script is in 2 columns. Left column is for the narrative. Right column is to indicate where to insert the footage, image or illustrations. Use the following movie structure to produce your video.  Refer to:

HOOK - video footage around 60 - 120 seconds preferred to images but can have both.
             - must attract attention to continue viewing.

TITLE - The young cat has multiple circular wounds. Is it ringworm?

Setting - Singapore apartments. Show some scenes of the township.
What is the problem?
How is the problem diagnosed?
Laboratory tests to aid diagnosis.


How to resolve the problem? 
Treatment depends on the cause or causes.


Outcome - Good or bad response to treatment.
Tips and advices to cat owners. 




Video shows left, right, back, front, upper and lower body of cat with or without circular lesions

Use this image, not any others esp. not dog images

TITLE - The young cat has multiple circular wounds. Is it ringworm?

Setting - Singapore apartments

What is the problem?  - Skin lesions - many circular ones from  ... cm to ... cm across in all 4 limbs.

Infected wounds do not heal as the cat keeps licking them. Need pain killers and anti-inflammatory medication

Circular pattern indicates incisor and canine teeth bite marks from another cat

How is the problem diagnosed?

The wounds look very much like ringworm. (INTERN - to define ringworm and show some images of ringworm)

One example of ringworm in a kitten

Feline ringworm
Ringworm also infects dogs

Laboratory tests to aid diagnosis

How to resolve the problem?
Treatment depends on the cause or causes.
1. Traumatic injuries from bites likely as there are two other cats in the home. What gender and age are they? Litter box sharing? Food bowl sharing? Any other significant issues like bullying? Is this the youngest cat?
2. Ringworm cannot be ruled out.  Lab test
3. Chemical burns. History of use of chemicals on the flooring
4. Allergies to food, environment. Lab test 

Show an image of the left side of the body, the lower belly view and upper top backbone view

left elbow sores and wounds

Show the right elbow image.  The following images are wounds in the hind limbs - check and narrate

Clipping bald is essential in skin infection treatment. Decontaminate and easy to cleanse skin

Images of the hind limbs? Before clipping. After clipping. Narrate. Pus expressed.......


After clipping bald the areas with skin lesions, treatment involves the following: The pus in wounds are expressed. 
Pus - bacterial infection under the skin and in the ulcer. Intern to define "pus"

Every day, the owner will clean the wounds thoroughly with antiseptics. Anti-fungal and antibiotic cream is applied onto the wound. Antibiotics and anti-inflammatory injection are given.

Outcome - The wounds should heal well with time. 

Tips and advices to cat owners.  Caterwauling is the reason that the owner sends in the cat for spaying. She is on heat and is a noise nuisance.

No spaying till the wound recovers in around 2 weeks. Anti-caterwauling medication like Ovarid. What is Ovarid? Intern to elaborate.



For More Information...
Credits to Vets, Veterinary Assistants, Intern (your name and date of video completion)

*Use also this Credit To Vets image, although it is in portrait size.

NOTE. The intern still has to draft her script as the above is not 100% written.

Recent completed video needs to be edited to remove the dog image and to narrate according to the appearance of the footage and images. Intern should not use irrelevant footage of the video to narrate the case study (see the ending part)