Thursday, October 27, 2011

FURTD, FIV and FeLV in cats

1. Feline upper respiratory tract diseases (FURTD) are usually caused by Feline herpes virus and calicivirus in 90% of the cases in Australia's multi-cat environments. In Singapore, usually stray cats.

Sneezing, pus in both nostrils and eye discharges are the main signs.

2. FIV
Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV)
Transmission is mainly by biting e.g. roaming male cats.
Clinical 4 phases
1. Acute infection - 4-6 weeks, fever, neutropenia, lymphadenopathy
2. Asymptomatic carrier state (FIV Ab positive). Most common. last months or years.
3. Chronic disease. Non-specific signs like chronic stomatitis (possible immunodeficiency cause)
4.Terminal AIDS-phase. Infections and neoplasia.

Few cats go to Phase 3 and 4.
Hard to give prognosis.

Laboratory list is typical as follows:
neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, non-regenerative anaemia (use erythropoietin)
monocyotosis and lymphocytosis
renal azotaemia
ployclonal hyperglobulinaemia

ELISA test kits. detect anti-FIV antibodies

Most cats don't develop FIV-associated disease, prognosis is generally good.
Keep cat inddors. FIV cats isolated in cattery. Good nutrition, proper sanitation and stress reduction.

Routine vaccination with inactivated vaccines

Supportive treatment. prolonged or repeated antibiotics.
Anti-viral therapy

Vaccine available. Roaming outdoor cat advised.
FIV and FeLV easily destroyed by disinfection and tranmission by fomites is unusual.
Prevent contact FIV+ to FIV-ve cats

regular deworming, clinical monitoring and preventive dental care
spay or neuter

Feline Leukaemia Virus (FeLV)
Mainly an infection of young cats cf. FIV cats older than 6 years usually. Non-specific signs like weight loss, anorexia, fever, depression.

Transmission mainly via saliva, nasal secretions during grooming, sharing of food or water sources.

Three outcomes

1. Transietn infection
2. Latency (sub-clinical)
3. Persistent viraemia.

Lympadenopathy (thymic and multicentric lymphoma most frequency associated with FeLV), ocular signs and anaemia YOUNG cats

Laboratory - non-specific
MOST common abnromality. non-regenrative
Leucoppenia, thrombocytopenia, haemolytic anaemia
Azotaemia (pre-renal or enal)
Hyperbilirubinaemia (pre-hepatic or hepatic)
ALT/AP increses
Proteinuria (secondary glomerulopathies or UTI)

ELISA antigen detection.

Other tests;
IFAT blood smears (antigen in WBC and platelets)
Virus isolation

Supportive treatment ---- control secondary infections, restore hydration with fluid therapy and nutrition. blood transfusions in anaemic cats, doxycycline for FIA. Lymphoma treated with chemotherapy.

Avoid exposure by contact.
FeLV is also a non-core vaccine,use in cats at risk e.g. cattery, outdoor, rehoming cats

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