1. Alphaxolone is an induction agent like propofol and thiopentone. It is a useful titrable induction agent but no studies are available about its effects on cerebral blood flow or intracranial pressure in anaesthesing animals with intracranial disease.
propofol and thiopentone are recommended. Propofol has advantage over thiopentone as it can be titrated slowly in minimally premedicated animals and shorter acting.
2. Azotaemia means an increased concentration of urea and creatinine in the blood. USG (urine specific gravity), or urine osmolality or fractional excreion of sodium are needed to evaluate renal function. USG is the most available.
Pre-renal azotaemia and renal azotaemia differentiation may not be easy.
Pre-renal is associated with low output states such as dehydraion, decreased cardiac output
Renal azotaemia may lead to acute renal failure.
Post renal azotaemia
Pre-renal azotaemia USG >1.030/35 in dog and cat
Fractional clearance Na <1%
Urine creatinine: serum creatinine ration >20:1
Acute Renal Failure (renal azotaemia) USG >1.007-1.015 or minimally concentrated in dog and cat
Fractional clearance Na >2%
Urine creatinine: serum creatinine ration <10:1