Tuesday, November 19, 2013

1189. Grape poisoning in dogs

Clinical grape poisoning in two dogs (a 1.6-year-old male Shih Tzu and a 5-year-old female Yorkshire Terrier) was described in the present study. Clinical signs included decreased urine output in the Shih Tzu and ataxia in the Yorkshire Terrier after grape ingestion. The Shih Tzu died 5 days post-grape ingestion, while the Yorkshire Terrier died 3 days post-grape ingestion. Erythematous serosae and mucosae, multifocal red small intestinal foci, and blood and grape seeds were identified in the intestinal lumen. Brownish-yellow crystals were bilaterally identified in the renal pelvis. The primary histological findings were acute tubular necrosis of the proximal convoluted tubules, severe necrosis, and mineralization in the renal cortical tubules. Blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, and alanine aminotransferase were increased in the dogs. Many Korean veterinary clinicians have suspected clinical grape poisoning. However, to our knowledge, grape poisoning has not been identified by pathologic and clinicopathologic basis until this writing in Korea. Education and knowledge about the risks of grape poisoning is necessary for the prevention of accidental exposures.



Case reports of grape poisoning in 2 dogs

 

Overview on grape poisoning in the dog

- primary cultivated species of grape is Vitis vinifera

- reported in America in ‘01 and in Europe in ‘03

- grapes or raisins reported to result in acute renal failure

- toxicity seen with different grape colors and types

- including raw, raisin, sultana, currant, fermented or crushed

- dogs reported significantly less able to metabolize plant components than humans

- common clinical signs include vomiting, lethargy, anorexia and diarrhea

- laboratory signs include the following:

- hyperphosphatemia

- hyperamylasemia

- hyperglycemia

- increased alkaline phosphatase

- leukocytosis

- urinalysis typically detects the following:

- proteinuria

- glucosuria

- hematuria

- crystalluria

- signs usually seen within 6 hours post-ingestion

- pathogenesis unknown

- 4 to 5 grapes reported to cause renal failure in an 8.2 kg doxie

 

Case report of a 1.6-year-old, sex:M small breed dog

- clinical signs: decreased urine output and difficult urination

- serum chemistry day 1 at referral

- elevated BUN at 39 mg/dl with reference at 7-27 mg/dl

- on day 2 at 91 mg/dl

- increased alanine transaminase at 213 U/l with reference at 10-100

- elevated creatinine at 4.1 mg/dl with reference at 0.5-1.8 mg/dl

- on day 2 at 6.8 mg/dl

- outcome 5 days post-grape ingestion: death

 

Case report of a 5-year-old, sex:F small breed dog

- history of liver disease and hyperammonemia 3 years previously

- clinical signs: ataxia developing the day after grape ingestion

- serum chemistry day 2 at referral

- elevated BUN at 121 mg/dl with reference at 7-27 mg/dl

- increased alanine transaminase at 239 U/l with reference at 10-100

- elevated creatinine at 5.5 mg/dl with reference at 0.5-1.8 mg/dl

- hyperphosphatemia at 16.1 mg/dl with reference at 2.5-6.8 mg/dl

- outcome 3 days post-grape ingestion: death

- necropsy

- erythematous intestinal serosa and mucosa with multifocal red foci

- grape seeds found in intestinal lumen

- brownish-yellow crystals in renal pelvis

- yel­low discolored liver

- histopathology

- acute tubular necrosis of proximal convoluted tubules

- severe necrosis and mineralization of renal cortical tubules

- fibrinous thickening of splenic cap­sule
 

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