Thursday, June 27, 2019

3351. Oriental Garden Lizard No. 4 and 2 seen today Jun 27, 2019 Thursday

Jun 27, 2019. Thursday. Bright sunshine day.
I attend an E-commerce seminar (Day 1). 3 more days in July 12-14.

1. Saw Lizard 4 today.
2. Re-appearance of Lizard 2.
3. A striped eyed bird, small, seen on the rambutan tree.

Jun 26, 2019. Wednesday.
Lizard 4 seen on 2nd day. Hard to focus his eyes when on the ground. Twigs affected focus?.
A green parakeet seen inside the rambutan tree. Not able to focus well but there was the image.
 Sent lens to Canon in North One today for servicing.

Jun 25, 2019. Tuesday.
I went to thank the grandma and child for showing me the gigantic black dragonfly. "I saw a green lizard today," she said. "She pointed to a tree trunk near the playground." There was Lizard No. 4. Normally I do not check out the trunks of trees in this area. .


Friday, June 21, 2019

3350. Dragonflies in Singapore

Sat Jun 22, 2019. Full of wild life sightings today.

A gigantic black dragonfly around 5 inches long. Normal ones are around 3 inches long. Took a video. I also saw a squirrel eating a fallen mango after grabbing it from the road and sped up the tree.

A female pink-necked green pigeon trying to nudge a male one as they perched on a tree. The male flew off soon. Lizard 3 from nearby tree. Identified from plum size.  A small lizard, probably Lizard 2 sauntered fast away from me, where the black dragonfly is still hanging on the branches of the hedge. 



Fri Jun 21, 2019. Went to Jalan Salang house after lunch.

A pretty bright red dragonfly crossed my path as I walked to the exercise area at 8 am.
A good omen. Went to Jubilee bridge and then to lunch at Pow Seng in Serangoon Gardens.



Jun 16, 2019
Ordinary brown dragonflies seen. Photo of one of the three is here.

Wednesday, June 19, 2019

3349. A 13-year-old Westie has a large gastric tumour

The Westie was lethargic. I felt a large firm mass as big as a mango in the gastric area. X-rays showed numerous masses inside the distended stomach. Likely to be a gastric tumour. The dog passed away around 10 hours later.



3348. A beloved adopted Miniature Schnauzer has a massive abdominal tumour

Much loved by the lady who works in Myanmar. She adopted the dog some years ago as the other person did not want him. He had skin itchiness and smell. Allergy blood test show that chicken
was OK for the dog but not venison, beef, fish or lamb. She cooked chicken and rice but the dog still got itchy as she was not around when she went to Myanmar.

In the past 1.5 years, Apoquel stopped the bad body odour and itchiness. The coat was great.

However, the dog vomited and was ataxic. I palpated a firm abdominal lump in mid-abdominal area. X-ray showed a massive abdominal tumour.



Tuesday, June 18, 2019

3347. A rabbit in Yangon needs dental extraction

Jun 19, 2019

VETERINARY FILES FROM MYANMAR





YANGON RABBIT - x-rays


Original X-rays. Positioning 










-----------------------------------How many teeth to extract?










Each jaw has 6 upper and 5 lower cheek teeth

















Specialised molar luxator is needed for the extraction of the CHEEK TEETH
Molar luxator needed. It is different in structure compared to incisor luxator




There is another mouth gag which has no screws. It is called MOUTH GAG

OPERATION
Video clip of loosening the molar ligaments
Sometimes, need to extract from abscessed area as there is osteomyelitis and bone breakdown









ANAESTHETIC RISKS

Injectable and gas anaesthesia

VIDEO



------------------------------------------------------------------------------


SINGAPORE RABBITS
CASE 1.  Normal teeth













CASE 3. Jaw abscess and teeth extraction








CASE 2  Drooling. Dental spurs

3346. Primary Hypothyrodism in a 4-year-old female spayed dog.


Jun 19, 2019

TP 
Case study
Emaciated 4-year-old X-bred, F, Spayed vomiting.

Jun 14, 2019. Blood test
Total Cholesteroal  normal
Triglycerides normal
Glucose (Fasting)  normal 
Liver normal
Kidney  
   Urea  79.7 mmol/L   (4.2-6.3)
   Creatinine  436 umol/L  (89-177)

Haemoglobin, Red cell count, Total white cell count are normal. 


Jun 14, 2019. Serum test
     Total T4    9.19 nmol/L  (13-52).   LOW
     TSH          0.40 ng/mL    (9- 0.40)
     Free T4     4.02 pmol/L   (7-40)     LOW

1.  Possibly primary hypothyroidism but need to consider the dog's history, physical examination and other laboratory test. 
2.  Autoimmune Thyroiditis due to autoimmune disease.

Most common in dogs 4-10 years old. More than 95% of canine hypothyrodism is due to the destruction of the thyroid gland (primary hypothyroidism). The 2 most common causes of adult-onset primary hypothyroidism in dogs include lymphoycytic thyroiditis and idiopathic atrophy of the thyroid gland. Congenital primary (juvenile-onset) hypothyroidism (thyroid dysgenesis, athyreosis)  and neoplasia are rare forms of hypothyroidism. Spayed females have a higher risk compared to intact female dogs.

Usually lethargy and weight gain, heat-seeker due to frank hypthermia. Retarded regrowth of hair. Usually bilateral truncal alopecia or hair-thinning.

TREATMENT
Replacement dosages for T4 in dogs range from a total dose of 0.02 - 0.04 mg/kg, daily, given once or divided bid without food (on empty stomach).







-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Hair Cycling Abnormalities

Hypothyroidism

Clinical Signs

No sex predilection, but neutered are at greater risk, and 6–10 years > risk. Onset of disease begins earlier (2–3 years old) in large/giant breeds. It is known as the 'great imitator' due to the wide variety of clinical signs that may be manifested.

Classic cutaneous clinical signs are:

1.  Bilaterally symmetric truncal alopecia (spares extremities) - hypotrichosis in frictional areas first. Large/giant breeds lose hair on lateral surface of extremities. Advanced cases loss of all but head and distal extremities.

2.  Dull, dry, brittle, easily removed hair coat - fails to regrow post clipping.

3.  Mucin accumulation. This can lead to myxedema (thick, puffy skin that's cool to touch) - most prominent on the face "tragic" expression.

4.  Hyperpigmentation

5.  Seborrhoea - Commonly seen due to the effects of thyroid hormone on serum and cutaneous fatty acid concentrations. Clinically it may present as dryness, greasiness, or seborrhoeic dermatitis.

6.  Susceptibility to skin infections.

7.  Lack of pruritus. Generally hypothyroidism is not a pruritic disease, unless complicated by secondary infections (bacteria/Malassezia).

Unusually, hypertrichosis (due to retarded turnover of hairs) may be seen, particularly in Boxers and Irish setters. The coat may become lighter in colour because the retained hairs are bleached.

Other changes that may be seen include:

1.  Ceruminous otitis or the medial pinnae and canals become dry and scaly. The changes may predispose the ears to Malassezia and/or bacterial infections.

2.  Bacterial infections

3.  Poor wound healing and easy bruising

4.  Comedone formation - usually over the ventral abdomen

Noncutaneous Cx

There is a wide range of clinical signs affecting the CNS; neuromuscular, gastrointestinal and cardiovascular systems; ocular changes; changes to CBC and reproduction (along with heat-seeking behavior); and weight gain despite unchanged dietary input.

NB hypothyroidism can occur concurrently with other endocrinopathies, be secondary to others (e.g., Cushing's), or be part of a polyglandular problem (e.g., diabetes mellitus, hypoadrenocorticism and thyroiditis occur due to autoimmune disease).

Diagnosis

Hypothyroid dogs normally present with a gamut of clinical signs. There are some important clues in identifying a suspected hypothyroid dog: middle aged, recurrent pyoderma in older animals that responds completely to antibiotics (NB some atopics will also present in a similar manner; however, it is generally in a younger dog), a history of heat seeking, lethargy, weight gain whilst on a constant level of feeding, poor libido or abnormal cycling - these all raise the index of suspicion.

Because of the variety of clinical signs and the fact no one test is definitive, a range of tests may be necessary:

 Haemogram

 Normocytic normochromic, nonregenerative anaemia is seen in 30% of cases due to folic acid, B12 metabolism deficiency.

 Microcytic hypochromic anaemia may occasionally be seen due to iron metabolism deficiency.

 Microbiological assays

 Hyper-cholesterol (50–75% of cases), CPK elevation (< 50% of cases), urine analysis - normal.

 Thyroid Testing

 Total T4 (TT4), Total T3 (TT3)
The evaluation of baseline total T3 and total T4 has been subject to controversy, as the levels of each will fluctuate during the day and are affected by numerous factors other than thyroid function alone. Added to this is the fact that the tests themselves are imprecise with varying rates of specificity and sensitivity.
A positive test in the absence of supportive clinical signs does NOT equal a diagnosis of hypothyroidism.

 Free T4 (fT4)
More consistent measure - because fT4 determines availability to the cells and TT4 may change (in response to illness, drugs, etc.) without changing fT4.

 Serum TSH Measurement
This is the most reliable method in humans. The combination of low fT4 together with elevated endogenous thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) seems to be the most reliable method currently available.

 Function Studies

 TSH Stimulation
Vastly superior to basal hormone determination. Bovine TSH is no longer commercially available; however, recent pilot studies have suggested that human TSH may be a viable alternative. This still requires further validation before it can be recommended.

 TRH Stimulation
This test is unreliable (Frank 1996).

 Histopathology
Generally, the changes are nonspecific, but suggestive changes include vacuolated hypertrophied arrector pili muscle, increased dermal mucin, thick dermis. The other use of the biopsy is to rule out other differentials, e.g., Demodex, infections, follicular dysplasia.

Sunday, June 16, 2019

3335. Wildlife photography tips - Oriental Garden Lizard






3343. A terrapin tank bought from the internet has chemical smells





Sunday Jun 16, 2019 case. THE RED-EARED SLIDER COVERED HIS EYES WITH A WHITE MEMBRANE. WHAT'S WRONG?

The owner purchased a terrapin tank online from China to provide a proper home with water filtration and ultraviolet light for his young red-eared slider. When he put him into the tank with added water, the white membranes covered the cornea. Why did this occur?

"The 3rd eyelids are the white membranes. They cannot be seen normally.  However, they spring across the eyeball to protect the eye from chemical injury.  There were chemicals released by the brown floating basking rock or other objects inside the new tank," I explained. "It is safer not to put any slider inside a new tank.  You will need to get  the tank seasoned by filling it with water daily for several days or weeks to get rid of the chemicals.  The brown floating foam and the sand should be disposed off as they may contain chemicals".

 It was fortunate that the owner was quick to seek veterinary advice. The little slider looked hyper-active and should be all right. His black spots on his shell were due to shell rot. He had not fully recovered from shell rot. The young couple will treat its shell and feed a variety of food instead of one brand of pellets.   

See video at
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=k3biKuyRYcM

3342. 3rd Oriental Garden Lizard and 3 dragonflies on Sunday Jun 16, 2019

Sunday Jun 16, 2019
Morning walk 7.30 am to 9 am. Bright sunny. Oriental Garden Lizard (lizard).



First new significant sighting was 3 dragon flies. They did stay long enough for me to photograph.

Second new significant sighting was the 3rd lizard. 
The first tree lizard was on the side of the tree later when I came back. He appeared thinner and darker. I did not go near him as he is aware of me. In previous days, he would hop off the tree or somersault to climb facing up-tree. As I walked away, I saw this 3rd lizard for the first time.




Saturday Jun 16, 2019
Morning walk.  I noticed that PNGP were seldom seen for the past few days and wondered whether they had migrated elsewhere. Usually there would be at least one, high up in the tree.
 
Significant sighting: A couple of pink-necked green pigeons together on top of a tree sunbathing for over a minute for me to take their photo. The male left some time later. Two other single PNGP flew around.

Evening dinner near the Esso Station. A PNGP perched high up on the tree in this park. I saw this type of bird in same location before. 

Saturday, June 15, 2019

3341. Two hatchling red-eared sliders swim lop-sided and had white spots on the carapace

Sat Jun 15, 2019

The parents of a daughter in Primary 5 and 2 sons in Primary 3 and Primary 1 consulted Vet 1 who gave an injection. They consulted Toa Payoh Vets as the sliders were still not eating. They had surfed the internet for answers to the "RI" (Respiratory Infections) and came to Toa Payoh Vets.

"Poor quality sliders are usually infected," I was informed by the parents that there is great difficulty in finding hatchling sliders for sale. "The American-originated ones are of better health and quality but they may not be available."

The sliders needed to be inpatient for at least 3 days.   

3340. The African Grey Parrot with seizures was advised to be "put to sleep."

Sat Jun 15, 2019


Medication for the African Grey Parrot provided by Vet 1.


0.04 x Midazolam Injection 15mg/3ml
To administer intra-nasally if having a seizure
Store in a dark drawer/cupboard
Discard after 30 days



1 x Kepra 250mg Tablet
Mix 1 tablet in 5ml of water (50mg/ml)
Give 0.08 ml 3 times a day (every 8 hours)
Seizure control medication
Shake before use
Discard solution after 2 weeks but for life-long medication.


Phenobarbital 10mg tablet
Mix 4 tablet in 10 ml of water (4mg/ml)
Give 0.1ml once a day till veterinarian advises

----------------------------------------



Hypocalcaemic Seizure has been reported in one African Grey Parrot. Blood test must be done to confirm this.
 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1680947/pdf/canvetj00576-0054.pdf

Until the clinical pathology results became available, emergency treatment consisted of 25 mg calcium gluconate (calcium gluconate injection B.P., Glaxo Laboratories, Toronto, Ontario) given subcutaneously in 5 mL physiological saline (sodium chloride injection U.S.P., Abbott Laboratories, Montreal, Quebec), distributed in three sites over the pectoral musculature, and Injacom 100 + B complex (Hoffman LaRoche, Nutley, New Jersey) 0.06 mL diluted in 1 mL physiological saline subcutaneously (equals 6000 IU vitamin A and 600 IU vitamin D3).


The bird was placed in a hospital cage for observation and was fed a seed mix. Spectinomycin oral liquid (Syntex Agribusiness, Mississauga, Ontario) (15 drops in 120 mL water), calcium (Calcium Sandoz syrup 5 mL = 110 mg, Sandoz Canada, Dorval, Quebec) (1 mL in 30 mL water), and WinStress powder (WinStress, Winthrop Animal Health Products, Aurora, Ontario) (1/8 tsp in 600 mL water) were added to the bird's drinking water.


 Finally, in the African grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus erithacus) and the Timneh grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus timneh) (5,7,8), a hypocalcemic syndrome has been documented. It is usually seen in young birds (two- to five-years-old) but has been reported in a ten-year-old bird. The birds have a history of fainting or seizures, often initiated by excitement. Blood calcium levels are consistently below normal (i.e. 6 mg/dL with the normal being 8 to 13 mg/dL) (9), and have been recorded as low as 2 to 4 mg/dL. On histopathology parathyroid glands are enlarged and there are severe degenerative changes. Vacuolation of adrenocortical cells is also present. Cortical bone sections, however, demonstrate no calcium loss or thinning as would be expected in a hypocalcemic state.

 The clinical pathology results raise several major doubts. First, that the most probable cause of the seizures was hypocalcemia. Other potential causes of seizures (6) in birds include hypoglycemia, toxicosis (lead, mercury), infections, and epilepsy. This bird was not hypoglycemic. The prompt response to calcium therapy, together with no recurrence of seizures over a sixteen month period would tend to rule-out epilepsy. The possibility of a concurrent bacteremia must be considered due to the Enterobacteriaceae cloacal culture. Enterobacteriaceae frequently cause disease in pet birds (8), and birds seem prone to develop bacteremia. Thus, the initiation of the seizures by infection plus stress, as manifested by the increase in heterophils and glucose (Table 1), cannot be ruled out. The female bird, living in the same home and fed the same diet as the subject bird for four years, did not manifest hypocalcemia. Perhaps this would introduce some skepticism as to the hypothesis (5,7) of a virus damaging the parathyroid gland of the male bird.

Prophylactic measures to prevent the hypocalcemic seizure syndrome in African grey parrots should include vitamin D3 supplementation and periodic determinations of blood calcium levels. A calcium replete diet should be provided. Client to provide a detailed diet sheet to the vet.