The following has been updated today as there was an error in the earlier article stating that imidacloprid is toxic to cats. Bayer Thailand pointed out this error, namely that imidacloprid is safe for use in cats but it is permethrin that is toxic in cats. Since Advantix contains imidacloprid and permethrin, it is NOT safe for use in cats e.g. in the treatment of FAD (flea bite dermatitis).
On March 13, 2010, I attended a continuing education programme "Canine Vector-Borne Diseases in Pet Practice - Focused on Singapore" conducted by Dr Susanne Siebert. The contents were mainly on diseases transmitted by ticks, fleas, mosquitoes and sand flies. Heart worms and intestinal worms were discussed too.
For 4th & 5h year students, veterinary parasitology and pharmacology can be very boring as there are so many names and drugs and their efficacy, safety, ease of application, treatment schedule and ability to only treat or treat and prevent. How is the lecture relevant to the real world? I hope the following summary of my comments on "Bayer Parasite Solutions" may make their studies more enjoyable and in case they get tested at oral examinations in their final year.
1. Drontal Plus - One-dose dewormer
2. Advantix - Kills and repels. Not to be used in Cats.
3. Kiltix collars - Long-acting specialist against ticks
4. Bayticol - Anti-tick dogwash
5. Negasunt - Anti-maggots.
1. Drontal Plus (synergistic febantel and pyrantel formulation with praziquantel). Broad spectrum against round, hook, whip and tapeworms, nematode larvae and (when given daily for 3 consecutive days) Giardia which is a zoonosis. Safe in puppies, pregnant and nursing bitches. Strategic deworming is 4x/year with one dose. It seems that puppies as young as 2 weeks old can be dewormed. Note that Giardia treatment needs 3 consecutive days instead of one dose. Puppy can be given at 2 weeks of age and 2-weekly till they are part of the strategic deworming 4X/year.
2. Advantix Spot On (synergistic imidacioprid 10% and permethrin 50%). Kills fleas/larvae, ticks, mosquitoes, lice, stable/biting flies. Repels ticks, mosquitoes, sand flies, stable/biting flies. Repellency (anti-feeding) means that the parasites do not bite or attach to the body on contact with the dog. Explain this to the owner who may see one or two ticks on the body after application. Remove all ticks.
Safe in puppies over 7 weeks old, pregnant and nursing bitches.
NOT FOR CATS (imidacioprid is safe for use in cats but it is permethrin that cannot be metabolised by cats. Therefore Advantix is contra-indicated in cats). Ensure that cats do not groom the dog's skin that have had been applied Advantix.
Do not apply earlier than 1 day after bath and do not bathe earlier than 2 days after application. This advice does not seem practical for Singapore dog owners who usually bathe their dogs more than 1X weekly). If Singapore's dogs are usually bathed >1x/week, application of Advantix every 2 weeks instead of 4 weeks is needed.
Advantix is said to have acaricidal and repellent efficacy against tick infestations (Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Ixodes ricinus for 4 weeks, and Dermacentor reticulatus for 3 weeks). It kills fleas within 1 day following treatment and prevents further flea infestations for 4 weeks and so can be used as part of a Flea Allergy Dermatitis (FAD) treatment in dogs. But it is NOT to be used for FAD in cats (due to the permethrin component being toxic in cats).
Apply in 3 or more spots along the back of the dog. 5 spots are better.
In heavily infested dogs, use Bayticol dog wash first, apply Advantix and also treat the environment to prevent reinfestation (vacuum, wash bedding, clean tiles, apply Bayticol at 1 ml per 1.5 litres of water to tiled/concrete areas, not grassy areas). Remove all ticks still attached to the dogs after the use of Bayticol dog wash.
3. Kiltix collars (2.25% flumethrin and 10% propoxur). Spectrum of activity is 6-7 months. Longest lasting tickicide. Works within 24 hours reaching even remote parts of the body like the tail of the dog. Flumethrin has some repellency efficacy. But not comparable to Advantix's repellency. So, cannot claim that ticks, if trying to attach to the treated dog, will die very soon.
Does not lose its properties when it is wet. But take off collar before bath or swimming frequently. Also, you cannot use Advantix with collar as the collar will be affected. I don't see much interest in Singapore compared to the spot-ons like Frontline being available freely in the pet shop and convenient to use. I may try Kiltix collars but they are rarely available and so inconvenient for Singaporean dog owners who are city dwellers.
4. Bayticol 6% emulsion. (flumethrin 6%). Used as dip, spray, wash, environmental treatment. Efficacy against tick (40ppm), flea, lice, mite (30ppm) and environmental control (40ppm).
Larvicidal effect, inhibits oviposition (check label claims).
Residual efficacy: 7 days after application of 30 ppm, 3 ppm are still present on the hair.
How do vets apply Bayticol 6% emulsion? In heavily infested dogs, use this onto dog to kill ticks first. Pull out all dead attached ticks. Then give Advantix 24 hours later to dog as spot on for 5 spots. Goes home with Advantix to be given 2-weekly for 2 months. De-contaminate the environment.
In one example of 4 Siberian Huskies with heavy infestations of ticks. I got the dog's coat clipped. Then I inject 1.0 ml ivomectin SC. After 12 hours, I applied Frontline Plus spot on. The dogs were sent home. However on Day 3, the owner returned the dogs as they have "ticks". All ticks were still attached to the body but they were dead. My assistants plucked out the ticks. An anti-tick solution (e.g. Bayticol 6% or Carrington Dog Wash) may be too risky for these dogs since they have got ivomectin and Frontline Plus.
However, spot-ons should be applied 2-4 weekly. This may be costly when the owner has 4 big dogs. There was a reinfestation because the owner's workers had neglected to apply the spot-ons or check the 4 dogs in his factory. The pictures of the de-ticking of one Husky case are shown below:
De-ticking heavily infested dogs at Toa Payoh Vets
Salivation: Obviously, if the dog licks the wash before it is dry, the dog will salivate and the owner may not be happy. Salivation will also occur even when the wash is dried, as I have seen such cases. Owners are worried, although the literature in "Promeris" - a competitor's spot on product claims that there is no need to worry as the dog is not poisoned but is showing "hyper salivation". In practice, the vet or groomer has to care about the owner's worry after application of the wash. One smart groomer advised me that she gets the dog to wear an e-collar and she has no such problems after tick wash with the Carrington Dog Wash (another competitor). The amount used is 1 ml per 1.5 liters of water. Check the label.
5. Negasunt powder (coumaphos, propoxuf, sulfanilamide). Dust thinly on wounds cleaned from dirt, pus and tissue debris. Maggots will crawl out.
Protects wound against bacterial infection and infestation with fly larvae, kills flies and fly larvae (larvicidal, repellent, anti-bacterial, adhesive, dying, deodorant, scar tissue forming activities.
CONCLUSION. Indoor and outdoor dogs, use Drontal plus with Advantix, Kiltix, Negasunt and Bayticol when necessary against all ecto-parasites.
Bayticol - Heavily infested dogs. Wash dog to remove parasites. Then apply Advantix or Kiltix 24 hours later for prevention.
Advantix. Heavily infested dogs. Use Advantix and Kiltix 24 hours later. Next Advantix application should be 5 cm apart from the Kiltix collar as the latter is affected. Negasunt. Can be applied together with Kiltix if wounds are not too close to collar. Same as for Advantix spot-on area.
IN TOA PAYOH VETS DE-TICKING PROGRAM FOR HEAVILY INFESTED DOGS, we clip the dog's coat, apply Bayticol 6% emulsion wash. Then 24 hours later, we pluck out all ticks before sending the dog home with Advantix spots-on to be applied every 3 weekly. We check the dogs for tick-borne diseases.
Tick infested dogs can get sick with tick fever or other diseases and some do die. Owners wanting to de-tick their dogs, tel: 6254 3326, 9668-6469, e-mail firstname.lastname@example.org
The website with pictures are at: